Basic Rules in Writing Reference List

If a last updated date is available (for example, for a Web page), use it in the reference. Do not enter a last review date in a reference, as the content you are reviewing has not necessarily changed. Although the APA format may seem complex, it becomes easier once you become familiar with the rules and format. Note: The DOIs and URLs in the reference list above must be linked to the corresponding page, but the code for hyperlinks and the code for the Mousover text were not compatible. In your list of references, make sure that your DOIs and URLs are linked to the appropriate page. Your references should start on a new page separate from the essay text. Label this page with “References” in bold, centered at the top of the page (DO NOT underline or use quotation marks for the title). The entire text, like the rest of your essay, should be double-spaced. Are you writing a thesis for a psychology course? Next, you need to use the APA format to organize your article and list the references you use.

If you`ve never used this format before, you may find that it`s very different from some of the writing styles and guidelines you`ve used in the past. This figure shows the first page of a journal article. The positions of the datum elements are highlighted with different colors and labels, and the reference list entry uses the same colors to indicate how the entry matches the source. Remember that you must cite any information from another source, whether it is your own words or not. Everything that is quoted in the text must appear in the list of references, and everything that is in your list of references must be something that you have referenced in the text. Make sure you don`t have anything in one place that isn`t in the other place. For something like an essay, the body of your article contains the essay itself. When you write a lab report, your main part is divided into several sections. The four main components of a lab report include the Introduction, Method, Results, and Discussion sections. The reference section of your article contains a list of all the sources you have used in your article.

If you have cited information anywhere in your article, it must be properly referenced in this section. Add a recovery date only if the work is not archived and you want to change it over time. Most references do not contain recovery data. For examples of those who do so, see Chapter 10 of the Publication Guide and the Sample Reference page. A question we receive from time to time is how to sort in alphabetical order reference list entries that begin with “a”, “on” or “the”, and we are here to help. As there are many types of sources, additional information may be required. The most common source types can be found in the list of sample references below. The APA (American Psychological Association) style is most often used to cite sources in the social sciences. This resource, revised according to the 6th edition, the second printed version of the APA Handbook, provides examples of the general format of APA research papers, citations in the text, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page. More information can be found in the American Psychological Association Publication Manual (6th Edition, 2nd Edition). Why titles in APA style references are case-sensitive For a summary of this guide, see Basics of Reference List Entries.

Further information and examples can be found in chapters 9 and 10 of the Publication Manual. Creating an APA-style reference list entry for a work in another language is much easier than translating all the elements. The authors of groups are often government agencies, non-profit organizations, and working groups. Follow these instructions to format the names of the authors in the group in the reference list. The format of the source varies depending on the type of reference. The most common cases are presented below. For additional instructions for less common cases, see the Publication Guide. In this blog post, you will learn how to cite translated works. Create the reference in the language in which the translation you read was published. Why are article and book titles in APA style references written in uppercase/lowercase? The answer takes us back to the origins of the APA style in 1929 and a guideline that still has practical advantages today.

In addition, the citation in the text of a work corresponds to the entry in the reference list. For example, the citation in the text for the work in the example is Botto and Rochat (2018) or (Botto & Rochat, 2018). By answering these four questions, you can create a reference entry for any type of work, even if the Publication Guide does not display a specific example that matches. Consistent reference formatting makes it easy for readers to understand the types of books you`ve viewed and the important reference items. The following is an example of a list of references formatted in the APA style. Hover over references for more information on writing a list of references. The reference list entries contain the four elements author, date, title, and source. McAllister, J.

(2017, July 5). Beaver Stadium is preparing for the opening concert. Daily hours of the Centre. database and archive information is rarely needed in reference list entries. For example, if you extracted an article from an academic research database, the reference very rarely contains the database name or the URL of the job in the database. Your article should consist of four sections: the title page, the abstract, the main section, and the reference list. Any reference that appears in the text of your report or article must be cited on the reference page, and any element that appears on your reference page must also be included somewhere in the body of the text. This list has been provided with unique spacing for this guide, but you will likely be asked to place your task twice, and this includes the reference list. If a work is self-sufficient (for example, a report), the title of that work appears in the title element of the reference. If a work is part of a larger set (for example, a journal article or an edited book chapter), the title of the article or chapter appears in the title element of the reference and the title of the larger set (the journal or book published) appears in the source element. Some works contain suggested quotations.

These citations often contain the information needed to write an APA style reference, but need to be modified for the style. For example, you may need to change the capitalization of the title or the punctuation between elements. You may also need to place the items in the correct order of author, date, title, and source. How to literate “a”, “on” and “the” in APA style references Elements of the reference list entries are covered in sections 9.7 to 9.37 of the APA Publication Manual, Seventh Edition If you are having difficulty with the APA format or are looking for a good way to collect and organize your references while working on your research, consider using a free APA citation machine. These online tools can help generate an APA-style reference, but don`t forget to check the accuracy of each of them. When writing your work, it`s important to include quotes in your text that indicate where you found the information you`re using. Such notations are called in-text citations, and the APA format dictates that when you cite in APA format in the text of your article, the author`s name is used followed by the date of publication. Happy fish in small ponds: Test a reference group model of performance and emotion.

Your list of references should be at the end of your article. It provides the information a reader needs to find and retrieve any source you cite in the body of the article. Any source you cite in the article must be in your reference list; Similarly, each entry in the reference list must be cited in your text. Whether you quote or paraphrase, you should provide a reference only for the edition of the book you are actually using. The general format may be similar for many articles, but your instructor may have specific requirements that vary depending on whether you are writing an essay or a research paper. In addition to your reference page, your instructor may also ask you to maintain and submit a bibliography in APA format.